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   Global water reserves    
 

Not even 1 % of the global water reserves
can be used as drinking water.

Every day we are working at the processing of residual water reserves, in order to achieve best water quality for a wide range of applications.

 
 

 > We go for 98,5 % ...

 
 
 
  Indirect water consumption    
  Did you know that for only 1 cup of coffee 140 litres of water are needed?
And that for the production of 1 pair of leather gloves
8,000 litres of water
are required?
 
   
  > Indirect water demand  
 
 
 
   
 
BWT Water technology    


It was the chemist Henry Cavendish (1731 – 1810), who discovered the composition of water, when he experimented with hydrogen and oxygen and brought a mixture of these elements to explosion (oxyhydrogen effect). In 1811 the Italian physician Amadeo Avogadro finally found the formula for water H2O.

Although water has a simple molecular structure, it has nevertheless unique physical properties. It is the only element that exists on our planet in solid, liquid and gaseous aggregate state. It is these special properties that make water so fascinating and so important for all creatures. The density of water is 775 times higher than that of air. This fact causes the buoyancy effect, which enables us - and most of the mammals - to swim.

Many substances expand when they are subjected to heat and at the same time reduce their density; in the opposite case they increase their density when being cooled down. When a liquid is cooled down, the cooler part sinks to the bottom. The freezing process of water takes place vice versa. Water reaches its maximum density at 4 degrees Celsius, namely exactly 0.999973 kg/l. Ice weighs 0.91 kg/l - and that is the reason, why icebergs float. This is also the reason why frozen water bottles explode and why fish can survive in a frozen lake. They live at the bottom where the water is the heaviest, as there the temperature point is at approx. 4 degrees Celsius.

 


Water is a very bad heat conductor. This property is of utmost importance for the global climate. Water can actually store a lot of heat, which it then gives off again during the cold season. In the warm season, however, it prevents excessive heating. This way water moderates temperature differences. If one cubic centimetre water evaporates (at approx. 100 degrees Celsius), its volume expands to 1243 cubic centimetres (vapour pressure) - a process, representing the basis for the construction of the steam engine; this machine eventually initiated the Industrial Revolution.

The physical and chemical properties of water make it a universal transport means and solvent, which is integrated in all cycles of nature, in the microscopic as well as in the macroscopic. Without water, for example, there would be no nitrogen or phosphor cycle - both essential elements in the biosphere - as the corresponding ions can not at all be transported.

Water can dissolve salts and feed these in dissolved form to the plants. The plants use these ions as nutrients and release the water, which they do not need for their nitrogen metabolism, to the atmosphere. This little water cycle is as important as the big one - without it and thus without water there would be no life

 
 
 
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บริษัท คอสโมโพลีแทน เทรดดิ้ง จำกัด 48/2 ซอย นภาศัพท์ 2 ถนน สุขุมวิท 36 คลองตัน คลองเตย กรุงเทพ 10110 โทร : 0-2259-6052-3 0-2262-0661-2
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